بحـث
 
 

نتائج البحث
 


Rechercher بحث متقدم


thyroid problem

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل

thyroid problem

مُساهمة  sahar في 12/3/2009, 20:17

Thyroid Problems Overview
The thyroid gland is located on the front part of the neck below the thyroid cartilage (Adam's apple). The gland produces thyroid hormones, which regulate body metabolism. Thyroid hormones are important in regulating body energy, the body's use of other hormones and vitamins, and the growth and maturation of body tissues.



Diseases of the thyroid gland can result in either production of too much (hyperthyroidism) or too little (hypothyroidism) hormone.

Production of thyroid hormones: The process of hormone synthesis begins in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus releases thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). The TRH travels through the venous plexus located in the pituitary stalk to the pituitary gland, also in the brain. In response, the pituitary gland then releases thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) into the blood. The TSH travels to the thyroid gland and stimulates the thyroid to produce the two thyroid hormones, L-thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The thyroid gland also needs adequate amounts of dietary iodine to be able to produce T4 and T3.
Regulation of thyroid hormone production: To prevent the overproduction or underproduction of thyroid hormones, the pituitary gland can sense how much hormone is in the blood and adjust the production of hormones accordingly. For example, when there is too much thyroid hormone in the blood, TRH and TSH production are both decreased. The sum effect of this is to decrease the amount of TSH released from the pituitary gland and to reduce production of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland to restore the amount of thyroid hormone in the blood to normal. Defects in these regulatory pathways may result in hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.


Hypothyroidism in pregnancy

Newly diagnosed hypothyroidism in pregnancy is rare because most women with untreated hypothyroidism have ovulatory problems, which make it difficult for them to conceive.

It is a difficult new diagnosis to make based on clinical observation. Many of the symptoms of hypothyroidism (fatigue, poor attention, weight gain, numbness, and tingling of the hands or feet) are also prominent symptoms of a normal pregnancy.

Undiagnosed hypothyroidism during pregnancy increases the chance of stillbirth or growth retardation of the fetus. It also increases the chance that the mother may experience complications such as anemia, eclampsia, and placental abruption.

Probably the largest group of women who will have hypothyroidism during pregnancy are those who are currently on thyroid hormone replacement. The ideal thyroxine replacement dose (Synthroid, Levoxyl, Levothroid, Unithroid) during pregnancy may rise by 25%-50% during pregnancy. It is important to have regular checks of T4 and TSH during pregnancy to make sure you are at the correct medication dose.

Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy

Newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism occurs in about 1 in 2,000 pregnancies. Grave's disease accounts for 95% of hyperthyroidism newly diagnosed during pregnancy.

As with hypothyroidism, many symptoms of mild hyperthyroidism mimic those of normal pregnancy. However, anyone experiencing symptoms such as significant weight loss, vomiting, increased blood pressure, or persistently fast heart rate should have blood tests to evaluate whether hyperthyroidism is present.

Untreated hyperthyroidism does cause fetal and maternal complications including poor weight gain and tachycardia (an abnormally fast heart rate).

Treatment of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy is primarily medical. Propylthiouracil or methimazole (Tapazole) are the usual first-line agents to block the synthesis of thyroid hormone. They appear to be equally effective and have the same rate of side effects. The rate of side effects of each medication is not increased in pregnancy.

Iodine will cross the placenta, so its use in either a thyroid scan or in treatment with radioactive iodine is prohibited in pregnancy.

One positive note for women with hyperthyroidism is that those with Grave's disease or Hashimoto thyroiditis may have improvement in their symptoms during pregnancy.

Thyroid Problems Causes
Hypothyroidism causesLoss of tissue: Treatment of hyperthyroidism by radioactive destruction of thyroid tissue or surgical removal of thyroid tissue can result in hypothyroidism.


Antithyroid antibodies: These may be present in people who have diabetes, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic hepatitis, or Sjogren syndrome. These antibodies may cause decreased production of thyroid hormones.


Congenital: Hypothyroidism can be present from birth. This is commonly discovered early with nationwide newborn screening for this disease.


Defects in the production of thyroid hormone: Hashimoto thyroiditis occurs when there are defects in the production of thyroid hormone, resulting in an increased amount of TSH. The increased TSH results in a goiter (enlargement of the thyroid gland itself that can be seen as an obvious swelling in the front of the neck).


Medications: Some medications, particularly lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid), may cause a drug-induced hypothyroidism.
Hyperthyroidism causes

Grave's disease: This thyroid condition results from abnormal stimulation of the thyroid gland by a material in the blood termed the thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI). TSI overstimulates the thyroid causing a goiter. It also causes Grave's eye disease, including a "bug-eyed" look and "frightened stare." This can progress to severe eye pain or eye muscle weakness causing tearing and double vision. It also causes raised, thickened skin over the shins or tops of the feet.


Toxic multinodular goiter: This occurs when part of the thyroid gland produces thyroid hormones all by itself, without regard to TSH stimulation. It usually occurs in people with a long-standing goiter, usually in the elderly. Toxic multinodular goiter is different from Grave's disease because of the general lack of eye complications and less severe signs of hyperthyroidism.


Thyroiditis: This inflammatory disorder of the thyroid gland includes such conditions as de Quervain thyroiditis or Hashimoto thyroiditis. In these conditions, you may have periods of increased thyroid hormone release due to the inflammation, causing a hyperthyroid state. As thyroid failure occurs due to the inflammatory response, hypothyroidism may occur.


Pituitary adenoma: This tumor of the pituitary gland causes independent TSH production leading to overstimulation of the thyroid gland.


Drug-induced hyperthyroidism: This is most commonly caused by a heart medication called amiodarone (Cordarone). It may be prevented by monitoring this possible side effect and weighing it against the benefits of using this heart medication.

Thyroid Problems Symptoms
Hypothyroidism Symptoms


Symptoms of hypothyroidism in infants can include:

Constipation


Poor feeding


Poor growth


Jaundice (yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes)


Excessive tiredness
Symptoms of hypothyroidism in children include:

Similar to adult symptoms


Excessive fatigue


Poor growth


Poor school performance
Symptoms of hypothyroidism in adults include:

Early symptoms

Easy fatigue, exhaustion


Poor tolerance to cold temperatures


Constipation


Carpal tunnel syndrome (pain at the wrists and numbness of the hands)
Later symptoms

Poor appetite


Weight gain


Dry skin


Hair loss


Intellectual ability worsens


Deeper, hoarse voice


Puffiness around the eyes


Depression


Irregular menstrual periods or lack of menstrual periods
Hyperthyroidism Symptoms

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism in children include:

Similar to adult symptoms


Declining school performance


Behavior problems
Symptoms of hyperthyroidism in adults include:

Insomnia


Hand tremors


Nervousness


Feeling excessively hot in normal or cold temperatures


Frequent bowel movements


Losing weight despite normal or increased appetite


Excessive sweating


Menstrual period becomes scant, or ceases altogether


Joint pains


Difficulty concentrating


Eyes seem to be enlarging
Symptoms of hyperthyroidism in the elderly may cause:

Worsening of angina (chest pain) in persons with heart disease


Worsening of shortness of breath in persons with heart failure


Muscle weakness, especially in the shoulders and thighs

Thyroid Problems Treatment

Medications
Medications for hyperthyroidism

Beta-blockers: This class of medications works by blocking many of the body's responses to hyperthyroidism. It decreases tremor, nervousness, and agitation. It also reduces the fast heart rate. It is given as tablets to the person with mild to moderate symptoms, and as an IV preparation to the person with the severe form of hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxic crisis).
Propylthiouracil: This antithyroid drug works by blocking thyroid hormone synthesis. It takes several months after starting the medication for the full therapeutic effect to be achieved. Common mild side effects include an itchy rash. More rare, serious side effects include a decrease in white blood cell count, which can decrease the ability to fight off infection. Therefore, a high fever should prompt a call to the doctor. This medication can rarely cause liver dysfunction.
Methimazole (Tapazole): This antithyroid drug also works by blocking thyroid hormone synthesis. It may take slightly longer than propylthiouracil to achieve its full effect. It has similar side effects as propylthiouracil.
Iodide (Lugol's solution, Strong iodine): This medication works by inhibiting the release of thyroid hormone from the overfunctioning thyroid gland. It must be used in conjunction with an antithyroid drug because the iodine can be used to increase the amount of thyroid hormone and worsen the hyperthyroidism. Common side effects include nausea and a metallic taste in the mouth.
Medications for hypothyroidism

L-thyroxine (Synthroid, Levoxyl, Levothroid, Unithroid): This medication is the mainstay of thyroid hormone replacement therapy in hypothyroidism. This is a synthetic form of thyroxine. The body tissues convert it to the active product L-triiodothyronine. Side effects are rare, and it has an excellent safety record.
L-triiodothyronine: This is rarely used alone as thyroid hormone replacement, because it has less uniform potency than L-thyroxine. Its use can cause rapid increases in L-triiodothyronine concentration, which can be dangerous in the elderly and in people with cardiac disease. It may be used in combination with L-thyroxine for people who have poor symptomatic relief with L-thyroxine alone.


Thyroid extract: This is not recommended as a thyroid hormone replacement. There is an excess of T3 in this preparation, and the amount of thyroid hormones (T4, T3) is variable between batches.
avatar
sahar

عدد الرسائل : 133
رقم الدفعه : 9
نقاط : 3314
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/12/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: thyroid problem

مُساهمة  bob في 13/3/2009, 00:01

مساهمة جميلة يا دكتورة
تقبلي المرور

_________________




avatar
bob
مشرف عـــام
مشرف عـــام

عدد الرسائل : 671
العمر : 30
الموقع : wad-madani
رقم الدفعه : 9
نقاط : 3692
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/11/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: thyroid problem

مُساهمة  mahdi abdalazim في 13/3/2009, 16:09

مشكوره دكتور

_________________
ROSSONERI 4 EVER

avatar
mahdi abdalazim
مشرف عـــام
مشرف عـــام

عدد الرسائل : 776
الموقع : didialhaj@hotmail.com
رقم الدفعه : 5
نقاط : 3687
تاريخ التسجيل : 16/11/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://www.tvquran.com

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: thyroid problem

مُساهمة  sahar في 14/3/2009, 20:08

مشكوريين ع المرور انشاء الله افدتكم
تقبلو تحياتي
avatar
sahar

عدد الرسائل : 133
رقم الدفعه : 9
نقاط : 3314
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/12/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: thyroid problem

مُساهمة  d.sombola في 15/3/2009, 00:19

bob كتب:مساهمة جميلة يا دكتورة
تقبلي المرور
I love you I love you I love you I love you I love you I love you I love you I love you I love you I love you I love you I love you I love you

_________________
اللهم اشف عروة بشفائك وعافه من بلائك وداوه بدوائك
avatar
d.sombola
مشرف عـــام
مشرف عـــام

عدد الرسائل : 1009
العمر : 30
الموقع : بيت العز يا بيتنا
رقم الدفعه : 8
نقاط : 4298
تاريخ التسجيل : 08/01/2009

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://www.islamic medicine on line .com

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: thyroid problem

مُساهمة  مهند أزهري في 16/3/2009, 05:03

مشكوررررررة
avatar
مهند أزهري

عدد الرسائل : 541
العمر : 30
رقم الدفعه : التاسعة
نقاط : 3831
تاريخ التسجيل : 16/11/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: thyroid problem

مُساهمة  Dr. Areeg magzoub في 8/5/2009, 21:05

مشكووورة يا دكتورة موضوعك جذبنى جدا لانو انا بمثل hyperthyrodism ومواضيع الغدة الدرقية دى انا بفتفت فيها طواالى لكن موضوعك تمام تسلمى ومشكوووورة

_________________
لــسنـــا نحن من نهــب الشـــفاء*** ولكننــا سبب والاله الشــــافى
avatar
Dr. Areeg magzoub
الادارة
الادارة

عدد الرسائل : 858
العمر : 31
الموقع : جامعه امدرمان الاسلامية
رقم الدفعه : الدفعة العاشرة
نقاط : 4417
تاريخ التسجيل : 19/11/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://www.google.com

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: thyroid problem

مُساهمة  sahar في 9/5/2009, 03:02

تسلمي يااريج ع المرور
ربنا يديم عليك العافية
avatar
sahar

عدد الرسائل : 133
رقم الدفعه : 9
نقاط : 3314
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/12/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة

- مواضيع مماثلة

 
صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:
لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى